Gender-based violence is a serious violation of human rights and one of the most widespread forms of gender-based inequality. This phenomenon causes harm to women, children, families, communities, and societies.
Law no. 217/2003 for the prevention and combating of domestic violence recognizes and defines the following forms of violence:
- verbal violence – is manifested using offensive, brutal language (e.g.: the use of insults, threats, degrading words), as well as using a high, threatening tone.
- psychological violence – manifested, in general, through verbal threats, insults, but also through discrediting, emotional blackmail, intimidation, control of personal life, acts of jealousy, coercion of any kind.
- physical violence – manifested by physical or health damage by hitting, punching, slapping, pulling hair, immobilization, as well as by using white or firearms, human trafficking for work, removal of organs, slavery.
- sexual violence – manifests itself through sexual aggression, the imposition of degrading acts, harassment, intimidation, manipulation, brutality in order to maintain forced sexual relations, marital rape, forced marriage, pornography.
- economic violence – manifested by banning professional activity, reducing access to basic means of existence (food, medicines, necessities, telephone, etc.), unpaid work.
- social violence – involves the imposition of isolation of the person from family, community and friends, prohibition of attending the educational institution or workplace, prohibition/limitation of professional achievement, monitoring of activities, etc.
- spiritual violence – manifested by underestimating or diminishing the importance of satisfying moral-spiritual needs by prohibiting, limiting, ridiculing, penalizing the aspirations of family members.
- cyber violence – manifested, in general, through online harassment, online messages inciting gender-based hatred, online stalking, online threats, non-consensual publication of intimate information and graphic content, etc.
Gender-based violence is widespread globally, mostly affecting women/girls, but it can also target men/boys, who can become victims of domestic violence, being assaulted by partners, children, or parents.