Gender-based violence is a phenomenon deeply rooted in gender inequality and represents one of the most notable human rights violations. Gender-based violence has been defined by CEDAW Committee as that type of violence that is targeting a person based on gender or sex. It includes acts that cause physical, mental or sexual harm or suffering, the threat of such acts, constraint and other forms of deprivation of liberty.
Although both women and men can be victims of gender-based violence, it was determined that the majority of victims are women and girls. It should also be noted that sexual violence, including exploitation and abuse, is a form of gender-based violence.
Gender-based actions have serious consequences, including:
- Impaired mental health could cause PTSD, anxiety and depression;
- Social exclusion, suicide and the killings of girls and women, inflicted by members of the community, caused by the fact that women do not report abuse for different reasons;
- Unwanted pregnancies and infection with diseases, including HIV, etc.
Related to migrants, it was observed that there is little data / evidence about acts of gender-based violence in Europe. However, some studies that included respondents in this category of people showed that some of them had been victimized, while others had friends / colleagues who had experienced one of the forms of gender-based violence. The main violent experiences that were reported included sexual violence, including rape and sexual exploitation, while the main perpetrators were either partners / former partners, asylum staff or other European citizens.